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“Four Medical Tantras” Spreading through out Mongolia

“Four Medical Tantras” Spreading through out Mongolia From the beginning of the 15th century to the late 16th, nomadic Mongolians had some sort of relationship with Buddhist centers, visited the temples and met some lamas and religious people. The Mongolian Tumen Zasagt Khaan (1558-1582) invited Garma Lama, Head of the Red hats (unreformed Buddhists), of the...

Preconditions for the Appearance of Medical Art

Traditional medicine is an inseparable part of the emergence of a culture developing its own theory, diagnostic and treatment methods, and reflects the unique background of each nationality. Therefore, we should consider traditional medicine as a part of the rich cultural heritage of each country of the globe. Traditional Mongolian Medicine is one of...

Medicine During the KHITAN

Ambagiyan of the Yila tribe, a descendant from Eastern Xu, was the first to head the tribe, Khitan, in 901 BC and then heightened to khan by declaring the Khitan state in 917 BC. The Khitan land spread from the coast of Pacific ocean to the Altai Mountains and from the Great Wall of...

Origin of Tibetan word “Khor” and “Sogbu”

Ancient medical texts and recordings written during the period extending from the establishment of the first state (209 B.C.E.) to the time when the Great Mongolian Empire was founded (1206 C.E) have not been studied adequately for the past 70 years. However, during the last fifteen years we have tried to collect and unify...

Dairy Products

Fermented mare’s milk is the best drink from all Mongolian dairy products. The process of milking a mare and fermentation of the milk started during the time of the Hunnu. It is included in Jun Lu’s history of the Han empire. Afterwards, in many basic sources as well as in the secret history of...
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Mongolian Empire

“ALTANGEREL” Sutra (MAHAYANA), Chapter 24 on the “Healing of all Ailments”

The “Altangerel,” sutra has been passed down respected and regarded as a superior shrine to the Mongols, a translation of one of the Buddha’s teachings. About 1000 years ago the 21st, 29th, and 31st chapters of the “Altangerel,” sutra were translated into Chinese, Uigur, Tibetan and the Japanese languages in a brief and detailed...

Shatumusu and his “Experimented Prescription of Biligt Khulsan Tankhim

This is one of the biggest medicinal prescription creations of Yuan Dynasty. Chinese scholars appreciated Shatumusu, a Mongolian lord placed in Jang Chin Jung of Jangshi region during Yesuntumur Khaan’s (Taitin Khaan of Yuan Dynasty) period. Complete Writing of Four Foundations66 stated that Shatumusu or Shatimus is a Mongolian. During his assignment period in...

Restrictions for Pregnant Women.

On page 27 of the “Brief Practical Guide to Healthy Diet,” it was said that pregnant mothers must use “mind-food.” Of the entirely repent of reticence the main bodily strength will not be lost as slightly thinking flourishing candle in the front of chest as bright happiness, then to control their drinks will be...

Medical Art and Healling

Origin of the “Four Medical Tantras”

Some Mongolian and foreign scientists have made surveys on “Four Medical Tantras” and published their works about when it was written, who wrote it,...


Shamanism is the earliest religious practice in Mongolia. There has not been clear definition of shamanism whether it is religion. However, nowadays, it is...

The Origin of Moxibustion Treatment

During the 8th century C.E. the principal oriental medical book “Root Tantra” of “Four Medical Tantras” advocated to “heal khii (wind) using smear (to...

Obstetric Services in Ancient Mongolia

Ancient rock paintings, found in Mongolia give a glimpse into the life of the people, their struggles, their armaments and tools, in addition to...

Hunnu Empire