The question who are the descendants of Hunnu has created a controversy among scholars. A group of scholars believes that Turkish people are the descendants of Hunnu. Another group argues that the modem Mongols are the descendents. In the late 20th century, G.Sukhbaatar (1980)21 carried out an extensive research which proved modem Mongols have originated from Hunnu. The study covered Hunnu’s geographical territory, their social structure, economy, culture, rituals, language, and some antropological characteristics. Also, a study based on mitochondrial DNA analysis of human remains inferred in the Egyin Gol Valley of Mongolia proved who were the Hunnu’s (Xiongnu) descendants. The research was conducted to compare pieces of information of people from two different locations of modem Mongolia. First group of people was selected from Egyin Gol Valley and 100 km in its vicinity (Northern Mongolia, south of Baigali Nuur). Second group included the rest of modem Mongols. The research purpose was to identify genetic connection between Hunnu and modern Mongols. In addition, the comparative research looked into genetic information of Yakuts and Turkish to test the hypothesis that they have originated from Hunnu. The result of the study showed that Mongols from different periods of history and various locations have showed a genetic similarity to Hunnu. Also research results supported the hypothesis that the succession over time of different Turkic and Mongolian tribes in the current territory of Mongolia resulted in cultural rather than genetic exchanges. In other words, Hunnu and Turkish have no genetic connections. This genetic study gave a complete answer to many scholars who were trying to identify descendants of Hunnu with their own ways. Furthermore, it appears that the Yakuts probably did not find their origin among the Hunnu tribes as previously hypothesized.
Theory of the Principle of Arga and Bilig
Usage of the principle of arga and bilig is common in the Oriental and evidence has been found of the usage of theory of the principle of arga and bilig on the wide steppes of Central Asia, a changeable climate where the Mongolian people live. It is considered that Mongolia is a place where combined characters were first seen and carved and the first symbol from this Oriental base science has been inherited by the modem Mongolian people nation. Using combined characters that expressed negative and positive sides of the principle of light and dark, Hunnus worshipped the sky and practiced a form of Shamanism. Shanyu Khaan who was said to be the son of the sky, worshipped the sun every morning and the moon every evening. Looking at the records Shanyu Khaan of the Hunnu Empire sat on the left and faced to the north and sat.on the right side of the ger (traditional Mongolian dwelling,) when he worshipped the idol that was placed in the rear of a ger. The sun and the moon are representatives of the principles of light and dark and there is no thing that is directed to just one side and it is impossible to exist. They recognized the needed balance needed that the sun must contain the quality of the moon and the moon must contain the quality of the sun. So it is called positive principle when the moon becomes full and negative principle when the moon appears on the western horizon. East is a positive principle, west is a negative principle, south is a positive principle and north is a negative principle. Two combined images found on the wall of the North Tsenkheriin cave are thought to be the first expressions of this principle of light and life. People recognized that formation of the outside environment directly influenced and regulated their everyday way of living. They did not only understand it, but they though it over, developed it as a teaching theory and used it in everyday life. At first they recognized that life goes on under two opposite phenomenons and that the sun rises and then it becomes dark. As time goes on they recognized that state of being sunny and light is not directly changed into the moon and darkness. The sun sets passing through interval periods, twilight or darkness clears up and the sun rises slowly and they concluded that there are positive and negative principles which are contradictory. The basic idea of negative and positive principles of the Hunnu was discovered in their customs and culture. For example: the swastika stamp of the Hunnu uses the meaning of negative and positive principles. The image of the swastika stamp was carved on rocks and monuments of Eastern and Western countries and noted many times. The symbol “swastika,” expresses an inseparable combination of opposite things, harmony of the phenomenon of the world as well as strength, weakness and the perfect/ imperfect things of human life. For example, the opposite male and female sex organs exist healthily through their opposite accordance. They also recognized that it would be a chronic change if this balance is lost, but there are set methods of how to cure this chronic change according to the teachings of the negative and positive* principle. The teaching of the negative and positive principle is a theory that attempts to explain many activities of human life and it was the main guidance to use treatment methods as a science. For example, in a book by the famous medical scholar Ge Hong of Jin, China, written in C.E 261-341, it was written that “Pill of nomadic Hunnu is a recipe to cure things that accumulated in much coldness.” From this it is clear that venereal diseases that have cold qualities (negative principle) had spread among nomads of the steppe and it will be cured by warm pills (positive principle). While making a survey, it was discovered that warm treatment methods like moxibustion, hot compress, hot inhaling, skinning, soaking and bleeding treatments were used according to the negative and positive principles.