“Khor” Nomad and Legbajaltsan
“Khor” Nomad and Legbajaltsan

Legbajaltsan wrote about “Khor,” Mongolian surgical methods such as the “35 Methods of Piercing Helmet,” in the chapter called “Medical knowledge developed in Tibetan,” of his work “Penetrate the Secret Covering of Medicine.” (page 176). Cultural and religious revivals took place twice in Tibet and are classified as early and late revivals. The early revival is associated with the three Dharma kings of Tibet: Songtsen Gampo (630-650), Tisrondezan (755-779), and Ralpachen (815 – 836). During these kings’ periods, Tibet achieved its literacy, Buddhism blossomed as a renewal of the Bon religion and the first monasteries were built. The Tibetans took control of the Silk Road and basic concepts of Indian Ayurvedic medicine were introduced to Tibet by Tibetan intellectuals. Some medical texts, principles and schools with mysterious data were concealed at that time and were dedicated to more intellectual future generations. The concealment of texts is called beuvum in Tibetan. The meaning of this word is explained as “to conceal the works which can not be understood until it is revealed.” In the Three Dharma Kings’ period the Tibetans’ intellectual capacity reached that high level, but the intellectual prosperity didn’t last long. After the king Ralpachen died, his father Landarma (836-842) succeeded the throne. During the new king’s epoch, religious and cultural life declined. Buddhism was oppressed and monasteries were destroyed and lamas were killed. Landarma supported the Bon religion and brought it back into existence. However, Buddhist lamas joined an uprising against the oppression. Once, while the king was having a feast, lama Lhalunbaldorj came out and started to chant and performed a religious dance. When King Landarma was bemused and showed himself, the lama shot with a bow hidden in his sleeve. This happened in 842. After that the brothers Lhalama Ishoed and Lhalama Janchivod concentrated their efforts on cultural and religious restoration, yet Muslims captured one of them. When Lhalama Janchivod asked the Muslims to release his brother, they required gold in the shape of a sitting man as payment. When Lhalama Janchivod agreed to pay in gold, Lhalama Ishoed refused and advised his brother to use the gold to develop religion and culture instead. Thanks to these two brothers, a religious and cultural revival came for the second time in Tibet. The late revival was accompanied by discoveries of “Beuvum,” the texts previously concealed. Among these works the textbook about “35 Methods of Piercing Helmet,” Legbajaltsan was found. Especially, 35 methods which were possibly developed by the Mongolians. Thus they made a considerable contribution to a medical renewal during the late revival of Tibet (this was mentioned in the section “Proving fact over the records of blood letting and piercing using archeological findings”).

Dalch (Sogbu) Janchiv

“Sogbu,” Mongol Janchiv was mentioned in “Penetrate the Secret Covering of Medicine.” Doctor Janchiv was a Mongolian, who lived during the second Dharma king Tisrondezan’s period. We tried to find some information about him indirectly. Lovon Badamjunai54 visited Tibet at the invitation of King Trisong Deutson, founded Samya temple and taught Sanskrit and Onomasticon to his Tibetan disciples. Further, he advocated the possibility of coexistence of the two principles and the idea of overcoming the strong opposition between different religions. Finally, he could put into effect his idea of founding the schools of Nyingma. Badamjunai translated many Tantric books from Sanskrit to Tibetan. Some books written by him were unearthed in Tibet from the 11th century onwards. He wrote texts intended for the Muslims and Bon believers from Kache, Nepal, and Dolbu, which were hidden between elephant nose shaped rocks which are located on the border of Tibet and Nepal. These texts were superior to any other at the time, so they were concealed. Also, his book Treatment method of dermatosis disease (hidden) was presented to King Trisong Deutson by king Li. Eventually Treatment method of dermatosis disease was taken by the Mongolian doctor Janchiv from the revealers of hidden treasures. Similar to when in 1038, Dava Onshe took the concealed textbook “Four Medical Tantras,” from the Samya temple, and the Mongolian doctor Janchiv brought the texts about treating skin diseases to the public’s attention which were handed to the king Trisong Deutson and later used in Yutok Yonten Gonpo’s work.

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