The 14th century was not only the beginning of a new page of Mongolian health science development but also the establishment of new schools, which combined some theories, such as the treatment methods of Mongol Dhom, Chinese medical methods in acupuncture, translated and made comments by Mongolian doctors, scientists and the base of medical treatment of Indian Ayurvedic and Tibetan medicine.
In the early and mid 17th Century four Scholars of High Mongolian Altai (1554), Oiradian Zaya bandida Namkhaijamts (1599-1662), lamyn Gegeen Luvsandanzanjantsan (1639-1704) and Khalkha Zaya bandida Luvsanperenlei (1642-1715) were trained. They developed Buddha’s main doctrine and the minor and major five sciences especially related to medicine.
From the source materials, sutras, fact, and books, related to the medical history development, there were four big schools established with the following sects:
- Sect of the Mongol Dhom based on “Sutra of Black Dhom”
- Sect of the “Four Medical Trantras”
- Sect of the “Acupuncture and Moxibustion”
- Sect of the “Combining of Western and Eastern Health Science”
Mongol Dhom was the very first health science among Mongols. Our ancestors allowed us to inherit an unrepeatable curing method. With this Mongols could cure such problems as trauma, accident and body symptoms resulting from hard nomadic living situations, internal and external conflicts, and natural problems from harmful weather. D Battogtokh (1991) mentioned in his study that this treatment cures diseases also related to religious “Shaman,” and can cure any disease in opposites or any conditions which are deemed unbeatable. Dhom zasal is a strong influence to society and human dominated time. Beyond the shaman and yellow sect religion-Yellow Faith Buddhism, beyond the resisted that is not a science, similar to nonreligious belief, it was also open attracted the public’s attention. Fortunately, the treatment with classic Dhom methods are still kept today, selected during its age that people said at any time it is revealed even though people hide it and are waiting for their science based surveys to be conducted.
What is the meaning of Dhom?
“A Brief Glossary of Mongolian Language,” by Ya.Tsevel explained its meaning: dhom means “ancient treatment, cure, folk medicine, folk cure, folk magic treatment,” also “dhom means graduate celebration of religious choir school.”
“Archives of hide able suseg-worship fund and closed belief,” by Kh.Dashzeveg (1996) first explained the meaning of Dhom as the graduating celebration of book in religious ceremony; the second meaning is the name of Mongolian hospitals. Besides having medicines to cure one’s disease they also use different methods called usage of folk medicine.”
With above-mentioned glossaries, the meaning of this word is mixed between Mongolian and Tibetan words. Therefore, it is more accurate to distinguish that there are two words, and not only one. In the Tibetan language the meaning of Dhom is completely different than what it is in Mongolian. While pronunciation is the same with Mongolian and it is written “sdon mo, when it is translated, it means celebration or wedding. After finishing the choir books it is the celebration of Yellow Faith Buddhism. Dhom in the Mongolian language means the name of Mongol hospitals, or a curing method using no actual medicines. The person who carries out folk treatment is named as Dhomch or Physician.
The origin of Mongol Dhom was closely associated with lifestyle experience of Mongolian ancestors. Another suggests that the origin of Mongol Dhom was closely associated with the symbolic culture of Mongols or Mongol Dhom is a precious intellectual creation of primitive peoples and it is necessary to find the existing sources and then to transcribe them into the Latin