Survey studies of Shamanism have been published abroad and domestically. Ts.Damdinsuren (1999), Doij Banzarav (1891), Ch.Dalai (1959), S.Purev, S. Dulam, (2001) and N.Dashzeveg (1998) have written interesting literature on shaman religion.
Ancient people believed that shaman is the Representative of Heaven and imposed all bad and good things on them. There are some sayings that were inherited from ancient times such as “person left his heaven,” today. Heaven is central to this belief. In shaman religion, shaman was trained in the eastern heaven, considered kharaal (curs) shaman, but if he trained in the western called white shaman or shaman, he serves all good things. Followers of the Shamanism think that they originated from one animal and make that animals shape and pray to it, or they are afraid of any changes which will face with them and make its shape in accordance with a vision or mind, and consider this to be god and pray to it. Mongols were also proud of and believed in many birds such as eagles, crows and magpies since the very ancient times. Eagles in particular are considered to be a powerful animal that can also sing a song. Shaman activities create a living “ongod.” This has led to the development of a method that alleviates human suffering or diseases. They also cure the people in order to make them believe in and take part in shaman practice. But shaman does not cure in the same way as a physician cures. For example, during the time of Khabul king, his wife’s brother was sick. They asked a shaman to come from tatar, Charkil Nudui. The shaman arrived but the brother
Sain tegin had died. Therefore they bit the shaman and sent him back on his way. After then the brothers of Sain tegin were killed by that shaman. This was when Mongols and tatars started to become enemies (page No 68, first volume of “Complete Collection of Histories” by Rashid-ad din). In the 16th century, the youngest queen Monolyn of Altan Khaan tried to kill 40 kids and baby camels to forfeit while his son, Tuved taij, in accordance with Shamanict custom made a big conflict in destroying the country (206 page, “Erdeniin touch” by Sagan tsetsen, 1961). From these examples, it is shown that, shamans are not only following the curing methods but also more harmful ways. In this way, lack of view may create the condition that the spread of Yellow Faith Buddhism in Mongolia was strengthened.
Whey treatment is one of the traditional Mongolian treatments h. which are truly related with Mongolian husbandry and dairy products of their livelihood and it can be called one type of hot steeping or soaking treatment, and smelling of dairy products. The soaking treatment’s main ingredients are milk, whey and whitish dairy products; in some places it is called Mongol treatment. There are many types of whey treatment in different places but generally it can be divided into 2 mainp arts. One of them is whey soaking or steeping, and the other one is mixed steeping of pharmaceuticals and alcohol that should be added to the whey. Whey that is used in treatment should be yellow whitish water of boiled mare’s milk or filtered whey of milky curds squeezed by someone’s fingers (khuruud). Choijamts, the great lama doctor of the major Khalkh palace, lived during the last period of the 19th and early 20th centuries. He wrote “Wonderful collection,” a comprehensive health science work. In chapter 126 he mentioned a special chapter titled “Mongol treatment.” In that chapter, patients have a bath with boiled, hot and warm essences with ingredients of distilled whey, mare’s milk, vodka, tea, salt, salt-marsh and wormwood. Artemisia was used in order to cure kidneys, bad blood, and bile, difficulties of having pins and needles, rheumatism and barn-scurvy. Also it was mentioned that it is very good to cure tsagaan huyan (whey) diseases and other piercing diseases. Careful preparations of that cure are vital before the Mongol cure-whey treatment begins.